Gideon Johannes Nieuwoudt, Cape Town, 1998. Steve Biko, the leader of the Black Consciousness movement, died in Pretoria on 12 September 1977. He was beaten into a coma during interrogation by security officers. Nieuwoudt was one of five security policemen who came forward to confess to the assault in 1997. His application for amnesty was successfully opposed by the Biko family.