P.W. Botha, prime minister since 1978, takes the salute at a military parade. He is flanked by his close supporter General Magnus Malan (left), then minister of Defense. Botha became state president of South Africa in 1983. During his presidency, South Africa was transformed into an increasingly militarized "emergency state", and General Malan was widely regarded as the most influential member of South Africa's powerful National Security Council.