Jillian Edelstein

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Albertina Mzimela and Ngoni Siza, KwaZulu-Natal, 1998
Albertina Mzimela and Ngoni Siza, KwaZulu-Natal, 1998
Albertina Mzimela and Ngoni Siza, KwaZulu-Natal, 1998. Albertina and Ngoni were present at a family party in 1994 when Inkatha impi warriors burst into the house and opened fire. Four male relatives were killed.
Albie Sachs, circa 1997
Albie Sachs, circa 1997
Albie Sachs, circa 1997.
Antjie Krog, circa 1997
Antjie Krog, circa 1997
Antjie Krog, circa 1997.
Belgium Biko, Steve Biko's brother, King William's Town, 1997
Belgium Biko, Steve Biko's brother, King William's Town, 1997
Belgium Biko, the younger brother of Steve Biko, at the Biko family home, Ginsburg location, King William's Town, 1997. Steve Biko, the leader of the Black Consciousness movement, died in Pretoria on 12 September 1977. He was beaten into a coma during interrogation by security officers. The inquest found that Biko had died of head injuries inflicted over a period of several days during his detention. Five security policemen came forward to confess to the assault in 1997. The application for amnesty was successfully opposed by the Biko family.
Biko brothers, King Williams township, 1997
Biko brothers, King Williams township, 1997
Biko brothers at their family home, King Williams township, 1997. Steve Biko, the leader of the Black Consciousness movement, died in Pretoria on 12 September 1977. He was beaten into a coma during interrogation by security officers. The inquest found that Biko had died of head injuries inflicted over a period of several days during his detention. Five security policemen came forward to confess to the assault in 1997. The application for amnesty was successfully opposed by the Biko family.
Brigadier Willem Schoon, Pretoria, 1998
Brigadier Willem Schoon, Pretoria, 1998
Brigadier Willem Schoon, Pretoria, 1998. Schoon was a former head of C section, the anti-terrorism unit of the South African Police (SAP) security branch responsible for liaising with the commanders of the undercover unit at Vlakplaas. He applied for amnesty for his involvement in numerous cases of murder and abduction, claiming that he was forced to participate in such actions by the circumstances that prevailed at the time. He received amnesty and is retired.
Brigadier Willem Schoon, Pretoria, 1998
Brigadier Willem Schoon, Pretoria, 1998
Brigadier Willem Schoon, Pretoria, 1998. Schoon was a former head of C section, the anti-terrorism unit of the South African Police (SAP) security branch responsible for liaising with the commanders of the undercover unit at Vlakplaas. He applied for amnesty for his involvement in numerous cases of murder and abduction, claiming that he was forced to participate in such actions by the circumstances that prevailed at the time. He received amnesty and is retired.
Charity Kondile, Butterworth township, 1997
Charity Kondile, Butterworth township, 1997
Charity Kondile, Transkei, 1997. Charity's son, Sizwe Kondile, was murdered in 1981 on the orders of Dirk Coetzee. She spent 9 years trying to find out what had happened to her son. In 1996 she attended the amnesty hearings in Durban where in Coetzee's presence she heard how Sizwe was illegaly detained by police, beaten during interrogation, poisoned, shot and burned on a braai. According to Coetzee, the police had been scared they might have had a 'second Biko' case on their hands.
Charity Kondile, Butterworth township, 1997
Charity Kondile, Butterworth township, 1997
Charity Kondile with a portrait of her son at graduation, Transkei, 1997. Charity's son, Sizwe Kondile, was murdered in 1981 on the orders of Dirk Coetzee. She spent 9 years trying to find out what had happened to her son. In 1996 she attended the amnesty hearings in Durban where in Coetzee's presence she heard how her son was illegaly detained by police, beaten during interrogation, poisoned, shot and burned on a braai. According to Coetzee, the police had been scared they might have a 'second Biko' case on their hands.
Craig Williamson, Pretoria, 1998
Craig Williamson, Pretoria, 1998
Craig Williamson, 'apartheid superspy', was a former police officer who joined military intelligence and headed the security branch's foreign section. He was also involved in anti-apartheid politics as vice-president of NUSAS (National Union of South African Students) in 1976 and knew Jeanette and Marius Schoon personally. Williamson applied to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) for amnesty for the murders of Ruth First and Jeanette and Katryn Schoon, who were all killed by letter bombs commissioned by him.
David Zweli Dlamini, Durban, 1998
David Zweli Dlamini, Durban, 1998
David Zweli Dlamini was subpoenaed to give evidence to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) during the hearings into violence between members of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) and the African National Congress (ANC). He insisted on wearing a balaclava because he was afraid of revealing his identity as a member of the IFP's Caprivi Trainees, who were called upon to 'wipe out' United Democratic Front (UDF) and ANC supporters in KwaZulu-Natal. April 1998.
Desmond Tutu, Cape Town, 1997
Desmond Tutu, Cape Town, 1997
Desmond Tutu, formerly Archbishop, Chairperson of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) hearings, Cape Town, 1997.
Desmond Tutu, Cape Town, 2000
Desmond Tutu, Cape Town, 2000
Desmond Tutu, formerly Archbishop, at the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) headquarters, Cape Town, South Africa, 2000.
Dirk Coetzee, Pretoria, 1997
Dirk Coetzee, Pretoria, 1997
Dirk Coetzee, Pretoria, 1997. Dirk was the first commander of the special 'counter-insurgency' unit at Vlakplaas. He had ordered the deaths of many African National Congress (ANC) activists, including Griffiths Mxenge. In 1989, Coetzee exposed the undercover operations of the South African Police (SAP) and lived in exile for three years afterwards. He applied to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) and was granted amnesty for Mxenge's murder in August, 1997.
Dr. Wouter Basson, Pretoria, 2000
Dr. Wouter Basson, Pretoria, 2000
Wouter Basson, Pretoria, 2000. Basson, an ex-South African Army Brigadier, was founder and head of 'Project Coast', the Army's secret biological and chemical warfare programme between 1981 and 1993. Nicknamed 'Dr. Death', he went to trial in Pretoria 1999, charged with sixty-one counts of murder, conspiracy to murder, possession of addictive drugs, and fraud. He refused to apply for amnesty, but was called to give evidence to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC)'s enquiry into biological and chemical warfare.
Eugene Terre'Blanche, Mafikeng, 1998
Eugene Terre'Blanche, Mafikeng, 1998
Eugene Terre'Blanche, Mafikeng, 1998. Terre'Blanche, the leader of the Afrikaner-Weerstandsbeweging (AWB), attended the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) hearings in order to oppose the amnesty application of a South African Police (SAP) officer, Ontlametse Bernstein Menyatswe, who had killed three members of the AWB in 1994. Menyatswe argued that the killing had been politically motivated and he was acting in defense of his people and their right to vote in a national democratic election.
Evelina Puleng Moloko, Duduza township, 1997
Evelina Puleng Moloko, Duduza township, 1997
Evelina Puleng Moloko, sister of Maki Skhosana, a twenty-four year-old female African National Congress (ANC) activist who was burned to death in the first officially acknowledged 'necklacing' incident in South Africa. Duduza, 1997.
Exhumation, Vlakplaas, 1998
Exhumation, Vlakplaas, 1998
Tholakele Ngqulunga, during an exhumation at her husband's grave, Vlakplaas 1998.
Family of Maki Skhosana, necklacing victim, Duduza township, 1997
Family of Maki Skhosana, necklacing victim, Duduza township, 1997
Evelina Puleng Moloko, Diane Moshapalo and Reverend Moshapalo, family of Maki Skhosana, a twenty-four year-old female ANC activist who was burned to death in the first officially acknowledged 'necklacing' incident in South Africa. Duduza, 1997.
Father Michael Lapsley, Cape Town, 1997
Father Michael Lapsley, Cape Town, 1997
Father Michael Lapsley, Cape Town, 1997. A New Zealander, he arrived at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in 1973 and deported to Lesotho in 1976 where he joined the ANC and trained Anglican priests. In April 1990, after the release of Nelson Mandela, he received a letter bomb believed to have been sent by a government death squad. He lost an eye and both hands.
Fikile Mlotshwa, comforter, Johannesburg, 1997
Fikile Mlotshwa, comforter, Johannesburg, 1997
Fikile Mlotshwa, a comforter for hearings in Johannesburg, 1997. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) employed professional 'comforters' at hearings to look after those who testified, both victims and perpetrators.
General Johann Coetzee, Pretoria, 1998
General Johann Coetzee, Pretoria, 1998
General Johann Coetzee, Pretoria, 1998. General Coetzee was Commissioner of Police in Pretoria between 1978 and 1985. He came to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) to seek amnesty for the bombing of the African National Congress (ANC) offices in London in 1982. When faced with evidence linking him to Ruth First and the Schoon deaths, General Coetzee refuted all knowledge of any involvement with any assassinations committed by any of his personnel while he served as Police Commissioner.
General Magnus Malan, Pretoria, 1997
General Magnus Malan, Pretoria, 1997
General Magnus Malan, Pretoria, 1997. As Minister of Defense from 1980 to 1991 General Malan approved counter-insurgency operations in Mozambique and Angola and was responsible for setting up the 'Civil Co-operation Bureau' (CCB), a covert section of the South African Defence Force (SADF) responsible for disinformation and assassination. Malan did not apply for amnesty before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), but volunteered to testify. He has not been found guilty of any crime.
Gideon Johannes Nieuwoudt and Mike Bernardo, Cape Town, 1998
Gideon Johannes Nieuwoudt and Mike Bernardo, Cape Town, 1998
Gideon Johannes Nieuwoudt and Mike Bernardo, a member of the witness protection team, Cape Town, 1998. Steve Biko, the leader of the Black Consciousness movement, died in Pretoria on 12 September 1977. He was beaten into a coma during interrogation by security officers. Nieuwoudt was one of five security policemen who came forward to confess to the assault in 1997. His application for amnesty was successfully opposed by the Biko family.
Gideon Johannes Nieuwoudt, Cape Town, 1998
Gideon Johannes Nieuwoudt, Cape Town, 1998
Gideon Johannes Nieuwoudt, Cape Town, 1998. Steve Biko, the leader of the Black Consciousness movement, died in Pretoria on 12 September 1977. He was beaten into a coma during interrogation by security officers. Nieuwoudt was one of five security policemen who came forward to confess to the assault in 1997. His application for amnesty was successfully opposed by the Biko family.
Hennie Smit, Pretoria, 1997
Hennie Smit, Pretoria, 1997
Hennie Smit with one of the doves he breeds, Pretoria, 1997. Smit's eight-year-old son, Cornio, was killed in 1985 by a bomb blast planted by MK (Umkhonto we Sizwe) members in retaliation for a raid by security forces on an ANC (African National Congress) base in Lesotho. Smit believed his son was a hero, because he died for freedom.
Joyce Mananki Seipei and Jerry Richardson, Johannesburg, 1997
Joyce Mananki Seipei and Jerry Richardson, Johannesburg, 1997
Joyce Mananki Seipei and Jerry Richardson, Johannesburg, 1997. In 1989, Richardson was arrested for the murder of fourteen-year-old Stompie Seipei, Joyce's son, who was suspected of being a police informer. Stompie's body was found on 6 January 1989. He was tortured to death by Jerry Richardson, the coach of the Mandela Football Club. Jerry testified at the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) and claimed that his orders came from Mrs Winnie Mandela, whom he called "mommie". Mrs Mandela denied all involvement.
Joyce Mananki Seipei with her daughter, Johannesburg, 1997
Joyce Mananki Seipei with her daughter, Johannesburg, 1997
Joyce Mananki Seipei with her daughter whom she calls 'klein Stompie', Johannesburg, 1997. Joyce is the mother of Stompie Seipei, a fourteen-year-old activist who was suspected of being a police informer. Stompie's body was found on 6 January 1989. He was tortured to death by Jerry Richardson, the coach of the Mandela Football Club. Jerry testified at the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) and claimed that his orders came from Mrs Winnie Mandela, whom he called "mommie". Mrs Mandela denied all involvement.
Joyce Mtimkulu, Port Elizabeth, 1997
Joyce Mtimkulu, Port Elizabeth, 1997
Joyce Mtimkulu holding a piece of her late son, Siphiwo's hair, that had fallen out after he was poisoned by security police in 1981. A year later he was kidnapped, drugged, shot execution-style and burned on a wood pyre, as revealed by security police at the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC).
Lizzie James, Cradock, 1997
Lizzie James, Cradock, 1997
Lizzie James came forward to give evidence at the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) hearings in Cradock about the death of her son, Rocky. He was shot by police in November 1977 after joining a student boycott to protest at being taught in Afrikaans at school. She expected to be paid money for the loss of her son. Cradock, 1997.
Magnus Malan, Pretoria, 1998
Magnus Malan, Pretoria, 1998
Magnus Malan, Pretoria, 1998.
Marius Schoon, Johannesburg, 1998
Marius Schoon, Johannesburg, 1998
Marius Schoon, Johannesburg, 1998. Schoon was a committed member of the African National Congress (ANC). There had already been attempts to assassinate Marius Schoon when a letter bomb that killed his wife, Jeanette, and daughter, Katryn, was intended for him. When Craig Williamson and Brigadier Willem Schoon applied to the TRC for amnesty, Marius Schoon fought to have it refused. He died in 1999 before hearing the outcome. All were granted amnesty for the Schoons' death.
Members of Mandela United Football Club, Johannesburg, 1997
Members of Mandela United Football Club, Johannesburg, 1997
Members of the Mandela United Football Club, Johannesburg, 1997. In 1997, Winnie Madikizela-Mandela appeared at the Truth Commission to answer allegations about her involvement with the Mandela United Football Club. A number of parents from Soweto had testified about the disappearance of their children after they had come into contact with these men. The Commission had gathered evidence linking the club to more than twenty incidents of abduction, assault and murder. The coach, Jerry Richardson, testified at the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) and claimed that his orders came from Mrs Winnie Mandela, whom he called "mommie". Mrs Mandela denied all involvement.
Monica Nqabakazi Godolozi, Pebco Three widow, Motherwell, 1997
Monica Nqabakazi Godolozi, Pebco Three widow, Motherwell, 1997
Monica Nqabakazi Godolozi, the widow of Qwaqwahuli Godolozi, one of the Pebco Three, Port Elizabeth, 1997. The Pebco Three were three political activists who were tricked into being captured by security police, taken to an isolated police station near Cradock and beaten to death during interrogation.
Monica Nqabakazi Godolozi, Pebco Three widow, Motherwell, 1997
Monica Nqabakazi Godolozi, Pebco Three widow, Motherwell, 1997
Monica Nqabakazi Godolozi, the widow of Qwaqwahuli Godolozi, one of the Pebco Three, with her daughter, Papama, Port Elizabeth, 1997. The Pebco Three were three political activists who were tricked into being captured by security police, taken to an isolated police station near Cradock and beaten to death during interrogation.
Mrs. Hashe, New Brighton township, 1997
Mrs. Hashe, New Brighton township, 1997
Mrs. Hashe, Port Elizabeth, 1997. Mrs. Hashe's husband, Sipho Hashe, had already spent ten years imprisoned on Robben Island between 1963 and 1973 before he disappeared in 1985 as part of what later became known as the Pebco Three. Mrs. Hashe spoke of her relief at finally knowing what had happened to her husband and how he had died. The Pebco Three were tricked into being captured by security police, taken to an isolated police station near Cradock and beaten to death during interrogation at Post Chalmers.
Mrs. Josephine Msweli, KwaSokhulu, 1997
Mrs. Josephine Msweli, KwaSokhulu, 1997
Josephine Msweli, Sappi Gum Tree forest, where her son, Simon, was murdered, 1997. Mrs. Msweli's family were African National Congress (ANC) sympathisers and were repeatedly attacked by members of Inkatha. Two of her sons were killed during separate attacks. She testified to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) that her son Simon and his friend had been kidnapped and taken to the Sappi Gum Tree forest where they were killed. She said the boys had been abducted by members of the stability unit and the KwaZulu police. She wanted the perpetrators to come forward so that she could establish why they did what they did and so that she could give them a piece of her mind before she would forgive them.
Nelson Mandela, Cape Town, 1997
Nelson Mandela, Cape Town, 1997
Portrait of Nelson Mandela, Tuynhuys, the Presidential House, Cape Town, 1997.
Nocawe Mafu, comforter, Cradock, 1997
Nocawe Mafu, comforter, Cradock, 1997
Nocawe Mafu, a comforter for hearings in Cradock, 1997. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) employed professional 'comforters' at hearings to look after those who testified, both victims and perpetrators. Nocawe is a qualified general and psychiatric nurse. She is seen here holding the hands of Mrs. Nomonde Calata, one of the widows of the Cradock Four.
Nombuyiselo Mhlauli and Nyami Goniwe, Cradock Four widows, Cape Town, 1998
Nombuyiselo Mhlauli and Nyami Goniwe, Cradock Four widows, Cape Town, 1998
Nombuyiselo Mhlauli and Nyami Goniwe, widows of two of the Cradock Four victims, Cape Town, 1998. The Cradock Four were a group of four political activists from Cradock who disappeared in 1985 during a trip to Port Elizabeth. Their mutilated bodies were found a week later. In January 1997, six members of the Port Elizabeth security police applied for amnesty for the killing of the Cradock Four. It was refused.

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